Endless Sun Solar

Glossary & Acronyms

This page is provided in order to explain some of the acronyms, slang, military jargon and prepper-speak you’re liable to encounter on Prepography.  Additional terms will be added as used or requested by readers.  Terms showing a source listed afterward are quoted verbatim except for [bracketed words].

AA :  Air Assault [U.S. Military Acronym]

ACC:  Air Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

acetylcholine:  A chemical compound formed from an acetic acid and choline that causes muscles to contract (neurotransmitter). It is found in various organs and tissues of the body. It is rapidly broken down by an enzyme, cholinesterase. Excessive production of acetylcholine at the motor end-plates (such as found in nerve agent poisoning) may result in neuromuscular block.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

acetylcholinesterase:  An enzyme (a protein produced in the cells) which stops (inactivates) the action of acetylcholine by separating the acetylcholine into its components of acetic acid and choline. This occurs as soon as acetylcholine has produced a muscle contraction. Nerve agents combine with acetylcholinesterase to prevent it from performing its inactivation of acetylcholine.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

adenosine triphosphate (ATP):  A biological molecule that is the source of cellular energy in the body.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

AETF:  Air and space expeditionary task force [U.S. Military Acronym]

AFTTP:  U.S. Air Force Abbreviation for Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, a type of Field Manual used to document tools, tactics, techniques and procedures as well as train airmen.

AI:  Air interdiction [U.S. Military Acronym]

AMCIT:  American citizen [U.S. Military Acronym]

AMEMB:  American Embassy [U.S. Military Acronym]

amyl nitrite:  A chemical used as medicine. Amyl nitrite causes blood vessels to dilate. The nitrite class of chemicals also binds with cyanogens.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

analgesic:  A substance that reduces or eliminates pain without a loss of consciousness.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

antecubital fossae:  The anterior area of the forearm, through which some nerves and major blood vessels of the forearm can be accessed most easily.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

anticholinergic (also cholinolytic):  An agent or chemical that blocks or impedes the action of acetylcholine, such as the antidote atropine.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

anticholinesterase:  A substance which blocks the action of cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase) such as nerve agents.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

anticonvulsant:  Class of medications that prevent or relieve convulsions. Example: diazepam.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

antidote:  A substance which neutralizes toxic agents or their effects (for example, atropine, 2-PAM Cl).  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

antiemetic:  A chemical that reduces the urge to vomit.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

AOA:  Amphibious objective area [U.S. Military Acronym]

apnea:  Cessation of breathing.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

APOD:  Aerial Port Of Debarkation [U.S. Military Acronym]

AQ:  Al Qaeda  [U.S. Military Acronym]

arrhythmia:  Abnormal or irregular electrical activity of the heart that results in an abnormal heartbeat.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

arsenic:  A toxic heavy metal found in the vesicant Lewisite.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

ASW:  Antisubmarine Warfare [U.S. Military Acronym]

atropine sulfate ophthalmic (1 percent) ointment:  An ointment applied to the eye to dilate the pupil, used in the relief of pain and to counteract miosis.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

atropine:  An anticholinergic used as an antidote for nerve agents to counteract excessive amounts of acetylcholine. It also has other extensive medicinal uses.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

autonomic nervous system:  The portion of the nervous system responsible for controlling bodily functions not under conscious control, such as sweating, digestion of food, salivation, changes in blood pressure or heart rate.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

beclomethasone:  A glucocorticoid administered by aerosol inhalation and felt to relieve bronchospasm and prevent or ameliorate pulmonary edema following inhalation of chemical warfare agents such as CG.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

betamethasone:  A synthetic glucocorticoid, like beclomethasone, when administered by aerosol inhaler is felt to assist in relieving bronchospasm and ameliorate pulmonary edema following inhalation of chemical agents such as CG.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

blepharospasm:  A twitching or spasmodic contraction of the orbicular oculi muscle around the eye.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

blister agent (vesicant):  A chemical warfare agent that produces local irritation and damage to the skin and mucous membranes, pain and injury to the eyes, reddening and blistering of the skin, and when inhaled, damage to the respiratory tract. Blister agents include mustards (HD and HN), arsenicals (L), phosgene oxime (CX), and mustard and Lewisite mixtures (HL).  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

blood agent (cyanogen):  A chemical warfare agent which is inhaled and absorbed into the blood. The blood carries the agent to all body tissues where it interferes with tissue oxygenation process. The brain is especially affected. The effect on the brain leads to cessation of respiration followed by cardiovascular collapse. Examples of blood agents are AC and CK.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

BOB:  Acronym for Bug Out Bag

BOL:  Acronym for Bug Out Location

BOV:  Acronym for Bug Out Vehicle

bradycardia:  Heart rate less than 50.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

British anti-Lewisite:  Commercial name for a chemical compound (dimercaprol) which is used as an (BAL) antidote for heavy metal poisoning—specifically, arsenic (a component of L).  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

bromides:  Any of the salts of hydrobromic acid, used as sedatives.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Bug Out Bag:  Also known as a 72 Hour Kit or Go Bag.  This is a bag or container that contains everything you need to survive the first three days if you have to leave your home.

bulbar:  Relating to the medulla oblongata, that area of the brain most adjacent to the spinal cord and responsible for many automatic nervous functions, such as respiration.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

bullae:  Medical term for blister.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

C2:  Command and control [U.S. Military Acronym]

CA:  Civil Affairs [U.S. Military Acronym]

Camo:  Slang for Camouflage

cannabinols:  An alkaloid derived from the hemp plant. (See cannabis.)  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cannabis:  The upper portion of the hemp plant, used as a hallucinogenic. It is known as hashish and marijuana. (See cannabinols.)  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

carbon monoxide (CO):  A colorless, tasteless, odorless poison gas that gives no warning of its presence. It is found in the fuel exhaust from all internal combustion engines and fossil fuels. It results from inefficient and incomplete combustion of these fuels. It is found in enclosed spaces with poor ventilation such as closed garages, inside crew compartments of vehicles, cellars, mines, and tunnels. (The field protective mask does not protect against carbon monoxide.)  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

carbon tetrachloride (pyrene):  Used as a solvent in industry. Its vapors are toxic and must be used cautiously. It causes liver and kidney degeneration.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

carboxyhemoglobin (COHb):  A specific carbonyl group, formed by the combination of the iron in hemoglobin with carbon monoxide.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

CAS:  Close air support [U.S. Military Acronym]

CC:  Critical capability [U.S. Military Acronym]

CCIR:  Commander’s Critical Information Requirements [U.S. Military Acronym]

CCW:  Acronym for Concealed Carry Weapon (licensed)

CFACC:  Combined Forces Air Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

CFLCC:  Coalition Forces Land Component Commander [U.S. Military Acronym]

CFMCC:  Combined Force Maritime Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

CFSOCC:  Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

chemical contamination:  The deposition of chemical agents on personnel, clothing, equipment, structures, or areas. Chemical contamination mainly consists of liquid, solid particles, and vapor hazards. Vapor hazards are probably the most prevalent means of contaminating the environment, although they are not necessarily a contact hazard.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chemical decontamination:  The process of sufficiently reducing the hazard caused by chemical agents in order to allow the mission to be continued. Decontamination can be done by individual service members, unit decontamination teams, or chemical units. Generally, methods used for skin decontamination include removal and/or chemical neutralization of agent(s); removal of clothing for medical examination; for equipment, the methods used are removal, destruction, covering, weathering, and chemical neutralization.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chemical warfare agent (chemical agent):  A chemical substance which, because of its physiological, psychological, or pharmacological effects, is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate humans (or animals) through its toxicological effects. Excluded are riot control agents, chemical herbicides, and smoke and flame materials. Chemical agents are nerve agents, incapacitating agents, blister agents (vesicants), lung-damaging agents, blood agents, and vomiting agents.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Cheyne-Stokes respiration:  A common and bizarre breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds, followed by gradually increasing respirations, and then a return to apnea. This condition can be caused by exposure to a nerve agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chloramines:  Substances containing chlorine and nitrogen, frequently used as wound antiseptics.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69 chlorine:  A gas that is used to treat drinking water. It is a highly irritating gas that is destructive to the mucous membranes of the respiratory passages; excessive inhalation may cause death. Chlorine was the first chemical warfare agent used in World War I.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chloroacetophenone:  A riot control agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chloroform:  Originally used in vapor form as an anesthetic agent, which is no longer used for that purpose. It is a clear, colorless liquid used in laboratory procedures.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

chloropicrin (PS):  A riot control agent. It is an irritant which produces severe sensory irritation in the upper respiratory passages. Also used in industry as a disinfectant and fumigant. It is a potent skin irritant as well that may produce nausea and vomiting.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

choking agent:  See lung-damaging agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cholinergic:  Referring to acetylcholine or nerve endings which liberate acetylcholine. Acetylcholine transmits the nerve impulse across the neuromuscular junction.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cholinesterase:  The abbreviated term for acetylcholinesterase, which is an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine to acetic acid and choline upon the chemical transmission of a nerve impulse across the neuromuscular junction.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

CJCS:  Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff  [U.S. Military Acronym]

CJOA:  Coalition Joint Operations Area [U.S. Military Acronym]

CME:  Acronym for Coronal Mass Ejection

CMOC:  Civil-military operations center [U.S. Military Acronym]

COA:  Course Of Action  [U.S. Military Acronym]

coagulation necrosis:  A form of decay of dead tissues, during which the tissue become dry, firm and opaque. During liquefaction necrosis, the tissues disintegrate into fluid.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

COCOM:  combatant commander  [U.S. Military Acronym]

CoG:  center of gravities  [U.S. Military Acronym]

CONOPS:  concept of operations  [U.S. Military Acronym]

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP):  CPAP is a method of maintaining the patency of smaller airways and the alveoli of the lung through the provision of air at all times that is at a higher than ambient pressure.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Coronal Mass Ejection (CME):  Solar activity with the potential to seriously disrupt the Earth’s electromagnetic field.  Note:  we often write about EMP and CME together due to the similarity of effects.

corticosteroid (steroid):  A group of hormones derived from the adrenal gland, primarily anti-inflammatory in nature but also associated with sexual hormones and electrolyte balance with profound effects upon the body.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

CQB:  Acronym for Close Quarters Battle

CQC:  Acronym for Close Quarters Combat

CR:  Critical Requirements [U.S. Military Acronym]

CTF:  Combined task force [U.S. Military Acronym]

CTG:  Coalition Task Group [U.S. Military Acronym]

CV:  Critical Vulnerabilities [U.S. Military Acronym]

CVW:  Carrier Air Wing [U.S. Military Acronym]

cyanide:  The broad term used for any cyanide, which includes hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen chloride.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cyanogen chloride (CK):  A blood CW agent. Acts similar to cyanide in depriving cells of oxygen.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cyanogens:  Current NATO generic term for blood agents that includes hydrogen cyanide and CK. (See blood agent.)  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cyanosis:  Slightly bluish, grayish, slate-like, or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to reduction of oxygen in the blood.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

cycloplegic:  An agent that causes paralysis of the ciliary muscle.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

DA:  Direct Action [U.S. Military Acronym]

d-amphetamine (dextroamphetamine sulfate):  A medication that is a CNS stimulant. Frequently used in drug abuse, a common isomer of amphetamine sulfate.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

DCA:  Defensive counter-air [U.S. Military Acronym]

DDR:  Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration [U.S. Military Acronym]

desquamation:  Shedding of the epidermis.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diazepam:  An anticonvulsant drug used to decrease convulsive activity and reduce the brain damage caused by prolonged seizure activity. Used in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diazinon:  An insecticide that is a cholinesterase inhibitor.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

dibenz-(b,f)-1,4-oxazepine (CR):  Similar to CS but minimum effective concentration is lower and LCt50 is higher. Symptoms and treatment are similar to CS.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

dichloroarsine:  An arsenical vesicant such as phenyldichloroarsine and chlorovinyldichloroarsine (L).  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

DIME:  Diplomatic, Information, Military, and Economic  [U.S. Military Acronym]

diphenylaminearsinechloride (Adamsite, DM):  A vomiting agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diphenylchloroarsine (DA):  A vomiting agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diphenylcyanoarsine (DC):  A vomiting agent.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diphosgene (DP):  A colorless liquid, related to phosgene, which produces delayed lung irritation.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

diphtheria:  An acute contagious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria can produce fevers, pharyngitis, and myalgias. It is notable for the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx. These may dislodge and cause airway obstruction.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

DIY:  Acronym for Do It Yourself

d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD):  A hallucinogenic drug subject to abuse. Creates bizarre behavior, psychosis. No legitimate use now, but has been used experimentally in the study of mental disorders.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

DOS:  Department of State [U.S. Military Acronym]

Election:  Advanced Auction on the Sale of Stolen Goods…paraprased from Peter D. Schiff

Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP):  An attack through the electromagnetic spectrum with the capability to destroy or disrupt electronics.

EMP:  Acronym for Electro Magnetic Pulse.  Note:  we often write about EMP and CME together due to the similarity of effects.

endotracheal tube:  A tube placed through the lumen of the trachea to maintain a patent airway and prevent aspiration by inflating a cuff that surrounds the tube after the tube is in place.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

epidemiological:  Relating to the study of diseases.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

epinephrine hydrochloride:  A drug used to relieve bronchospasms or constrictions, such as when exposed to HC mixture. It is administered by IM injection.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

epinephrine:  A fight or flight hormone from the adrenal medulla produced by stress or pain. Increases heart rate, dilates pupils, and increases respiratory rate. Also known as adrenaline. Used as a medication to relieve bronchial constriction.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

ETA:  Acronym for Estimated time of arrival.

ethyldichloroarsine (ED):  A chemical warfare agent related to L used as a vesicant. May be a respiratory tract irritant and cause pulmonary edema.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

FAK:  Acronym for First Aid Kit

fasciculation:  Localized contraction of muscle fibers, usually visible through the skin.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

FDA:  Food and Drug Administration

FDO:  Force Deterrent Option [U.S. Military Acronym]

FEMA:  Federal Emergency Management Agency

FFIR:  Friendly Force Information Requirements [U.S. Military Acronym]

FID:  Foreign internal defense [U.S. Military Acronym]

FM:  U.S. Army Abbreviation for Field Manual.  A type of military publication used to document and train soldiers.

fog oil:  A smoke made from a special petroleum oil.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

force health protection:  Measures to promote, improve, or conserve the mental and physical well-being of [Military]Service members. These measures enable a healthy and fit force, prevent injury and illness, and protect the force from health hazards.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

FS:  Fires Support [U.S. Military Acronym]

FUOPS:  Future Operations [U.S. Military Acronym]

FUPLANS:  Future Plans [U.S. Military Acronym]

G.O.O.D.:  Acronym for Get Out of Dodge (Dodge meaning any city).

G-agent:  A nerve agent such as GA, GB, GD or GF.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

gangrene:  A death of a body part, usually due to deficient or absent blood supply.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Get Home Bag:  Similar to a Bug Out Bag but used primarily to get you home safely in the event of a disaster.

GWOT:  Acronym for Global War on Terror.  Pronounced ‘G-whot’

hallucinogen:  A drug which produces visual, auditory, and olfactory imaginary sensations. Such drugs are cannabinols, LSD, peyote, and alcohol.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

HC mixture:  A special smoke made from petroleum oil. It is a mixture of grained aluminum, zinc oxide, and hexachloroethane.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

health service support:  All services performed, provided, or arranged to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel. These services include, but are not limited to, the management of health services resources, such as manpower, monies, and facilities; preventive and curative health measures; evacuation of the wounded, injured, or sick; selection of the medically fit and disposition of the medically unfit; blood management; medical supply, equipment and maintenance thereof; combat and operational stress control; and medical, dental, veterinary, laboratory, optometry, nutrition therapy, and medical intelligence services.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hydrogen cyanide (AC):  An extremely poisonous CW agent, which blocks the uptake of oxygen by tissue cells (suppresses cellular respiration). It produces rapid onset of symptoms from toxic effects including tachypnea, dyspnea, paralysis, and respiratory arrest.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hydrogen sulfide:  A noxious chemical with a strong odor of rotten eggs.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hydrolyze:  Process of changing the characteristics of a chemical by subjecting it to water with the production of a hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hyperemia:  Increased redness of the skin, which usually disappears with pressure or increased blood flow to a body part.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hyperventilation:  Excessive breathing (too rapid and/or too deep) with a resultant decrease in carbon dioxide tension and respiratory alkalosis.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hypopyon:  Pus in the anterior chamber of the eye.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hypovolemic shock:  Insufficient blood volume to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and aerobic metabolism.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

hypoxemia (hypoxia):  Insufficient oxygen in the circulatory system to adequately supply tissue cells. This may be caused by lack of oxygen, inadequate hemoglobin to carry oxygen, or interference with transfer of oxygen to the cells.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

IAD:  Integrated air defense [U.S. Military Acronym]

IADS:  Integrated Air Defense System [U.S. Military Acronym]

IATF:  Inter-agency task force [U.S. Military Acronym]

IDAD:  Internal Defense And Development [U.S. Military Acronym]

IED:  Improvised Explosive Device [U.S. Military Acronym]

incapacitating agent:  A chemical warfare agent that produces a temporary disabling condition that persists for hours to days after exposure has ceased. Generally, CNS depressants and CNS stimulants are the two types that are likely to be encountered in military operations. Examples are cannabinols and phenothiazine compounds.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

incendiary agent:  A warfare agent used to burn supplies, equipment, and structures. The main groups are thermite, magnesium, white phosphorus, and combustible hydrocarbons (including oils and thickened gasoline).  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

individual protective equipment (IPE):  Protective equipment that includes the chemical protective overgarment, mask with hood, rubber butyl gloves, and booties.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB):  A method of ventilating a patient with pressure greater than atmospheric during the inspiratory phase of breathing.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

investigational new drug (IND):  A phrase used to describe a medicinal that has not received approval for a particular use by the Food and Drug Administration. Investigational new drugs may be prescribed for this alternate use by a physician who has an established relationship with a patient, but may not normally be directed institutionally for use.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

IOT:  In order to [U.S. Military Acronym]

IPR:  In Progress Review  [U.S. Military Acronym]

irritant agent:  A tear agent, or lacrimator, which in very low concentrations acts primarily on the eyes, causing intense pain and lacrimation. Higher concentrations cause irritation in the upper respiratory tract and the skin, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. Examples of irritant agents are CN, CNC, CA, and CS.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

ISR:  Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance [U.S. Military Acronym]

IVO:  In Vicinity Of [U.S. Military Acronym]

JCMOTF:  Joint civil-military operations task force [U.S. Military Acronym]

JFACC:  Joint Force Air Component Commander [U.S. Military Acronym]

JFC:  Joint force commander  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JFMCC:  Joint Force Maritime Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

JIACG:  Joint Interagency Coordination Group [U.S. Military Acronym]

JIC:  Joint Information Center or Joint Intelligence Center  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JIPOE:  Joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JLOTS:  Joint logistics over-the-shore [U.S. Military Acronym]

JOA:  Joint operation area [U.S. Military Acronym]

JOPES:  Joint Operation Planning and Execution System  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JOPP:  Joint Operation Planning Process  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JPG:  Joint Planning Group  [U.S. Military Acronym]

JRSOI:  Joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration. [U.S. Military Acronym]

JSA:  Joint security area [U.S. Military Acronym]

JSOA:  Joint special operations area [U.S. Military Acronym]

JSOAD:  Joint Special Operations Air Detachment [U.S. Military Acronym]

JTF:  Joint Task Force [U.S. Military Acronym]

lacrimal glands:  Glands of the eye that produce tears. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

latent period:  Specifically in the case of mustard, the period between exposure and onset of signs and symptoms; otherwise, an incubation period. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

LCC:  Land Component Commander [U.S. Military Acronym]

LDHD:  Low Density, High Demand [U.S. Military Acronym]

lewisite (chlorovinyldi-chloroarsine):  A fast-acting vesicant, lacrimator, and lung irritant. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

liquefaction necrosis:  Death of tissue, with softening to the point that tissue becomes at least partially liquefied. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

LNO:  Liaison Officer  [U.S. Military Acronym]

lung-damaging agent:  A chemical warfare agent, also known as a “choking agent”, which produces irritation to the eyes and upper respiratory tract and damage to the lungs, primarily causing pulmonary edema. Examples of lung- damaging agents are CG, DP, chlorine, PS, and CK. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

M256 Chemical Agent Detector Kit:  A kit that detects and identifies vapor concentrations of nerve, blister, and blood agents. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

M291 Skin Decontaminating Kit:  A kit to perform emergency decontamination of the skin and mask. The kit contains six decontamination packets. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

M295 Decontamination Kit, Individual Equipment (DKIE):  A kit (similar to the M291 Skin Decontaminating Kit) used to decontaminate Individual equipment, such as the weapon, helmet, and other gear, that is carried by the service member. Although similar to the M291, this kit is not FDA- approved for use on the skin. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

M8 Chemical Agent Detector Paper:  A chemical agent detector paper used to detect and identify liquid V- and G-type nerve agents and H-type blister agents. It does not detect chemical agent vapors. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

maceration:  Destruction of soft tissue, usually associated with prolonged immersion in

malathion:  Diethyl [(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)-thio] butanedioic acid, a commercial organophosphorus insecticide. Also known as carbophos, maldison and mercaptothion and sold commercially as Celthion, Cythion, Dielathion, El 4049, Emmaton, Exathios, Fyfanon and Hilthion, Karbofos and Maltox. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

MANPAD:  Man-Portable Air Defense [U.S. Military Acronym]

MARFORPAC:  Marine Corps Forces Pacific [U.S. Military Acronym]

MARK I:  See Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK). Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

MBR:  Main Battle Rifle.

MCC:  Maritime Component Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

MCM:  Mine/Mining Countermeasures [U.S. Military Acronym]

MCO:  Major Combat Operations [U.S. Military Acronym]

MDMP:  Military decision making process  [U.S. Military Acronym]

ME:  Main Effort [U.S. Military Acronym]

MEB:  Marine Expeditionary Brigade  [U.S. Military Acronym]

methyldichloroarsine (MD):  One of a group of vesicant chemical warfare agents. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

methylprednisolone:  A steroid medication derived from prednisolone, anti-inflammatory in nature, and used to prevent or lessen the severity of pulmonary edema. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

METT-TC:  Mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations [U.S. Military Acronym]

MEU:  Marine Expeditionary Unit [U.S. Military Acronym]

miosis:  Pinpoint or small pupils. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP):  A flexible system for protection against NBC contamination. This posture requires personnel to wear only that individual protective clothing and equipment consistent with the threat work rate imposed by the mission, temperature, and humidity. There are five levels of MOPP (zero through 4). MOPP 4 offers the greatest protection but also degrades mission performance the most. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

MNF:  Multinational force [U.S. Military Acronym]

MOEs:  Measure(s) of Effectiveness  [U.S. Military Acronym]

MOPs:  measure(s) Of performance  [U.S. Military Acronym]

morphine:  A potent narcotic used in the control of pain, derived from opium that is readily abused. It continues to be the analgesic of choice for initial pain control in the combat-wounded service member. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

muscarinic:  A specific type of poisoning affecting the postganglionic parasympathetic neuralmuscular junction, resulting from excess acetylcholine due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The result is a decrease in heart rate, bronchoconstriction, and salivary and lacrimal gland stimulation. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

mustard (HD):  A vesicant chemical warfare agent, which has been used extensively in warfare. Creates destruction of epidermis, eye and pulmonary injury, and, in high doses, bone marrow depression. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

MCWP:  U.S. Marine Corps Abbreviation for Marine Corps Warfighting Publication, a type of Field Manual used to document tools, techniques and procedures as well as train Marines.

mydriasis:  Large or dilated pupils. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

necrosis:  Death of tissue. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

NEO:  Noncombatant Evacuation Operation [U.S. Military Acronym]

Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK):  The nerve agent antidote used by the US Armed Forces in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. The kit consists of four separate components: the atropine autoinjector, the pralidoxime chloride autoinjector, the plastic clip, and the foam carrying case. Also called the MARK I. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nerve agent:  The most toxic of chemical warfare agents. They are organic esters of phosphoric acid that have physiological effects (inhibition of cholinesterase). Nerve agents are absorbed into the body by breathing, by injection, or through the skin, and affect the nervous and the respiratory systems and various body functions. They include the G- and V-agents. Examples of G-agents are tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD), and an example of a V-agent is VX. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

NGO:  Non-Governmental Organizations [U.S. Military Acronym]

nicotinic:  Referring to the toxic effect of nicotine on autonomic ganglia, initially stimulating, then inhibiting neural impulses at the ganglia level as well as the neuromuscular junction. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nitric acid:  A caustic and corrosive acid widely used in industry and chemical laboratories. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nitric oxide (NO):  An unstable chemical compound formed by passing air through an electric arc. Converts to nitrogen dioxide when exposed to air. Like other nitrogen compounds (nitrogen dioxide), it is extremely hazardous to breathe. Self-contained masks plus adequate ventilation are mandatory when exposed to even small amounts. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nitrogen dioxide (NO2):  An irritating gas, one of several oxides of nitrogen, usually formed from nitrogen tetroxide or by the reaction of certain metals with nitric acid. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nitrogen mustard (HN)- A vesicant that attacks deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). It is also used as an antineoplastic agent (classed as an alkylating agent). Several were developed as CW agents. Also produces pulmonary injury and bone marrow depression. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nitrous oxide (N2O):  A chemical compound used as an inhalational anesthetic. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

nonpersistent agent:  A chemical agent that disperses or vaporizes rapidly after release and presents an immediate short duration hazard. These agents are generally released as aerosols, gases, vapors, liquids, or solids. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

NSWTU:  Naval Special Warfare Task Unit [U.S. Military Acronym]

NWP:  U.S. Navy Abbreviation for Navy Warfighting Publication, a type of Field Manual used to document tools, techniques and procedures as well as train sailors.

OCA:  Offensive counter-air [U.S. Military Acronym]

O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS):  A tear gas used primarily as a riot control agent. Potent eye, throat, and skin irritant, but incapacitation is short- lived. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

off-label indications:  The use of licensed medications for purposes that are not approved by the FDA. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

OGA:  Other Governmental Agencies [U.S. Military Acronym]

OPE:  Operational Preparation of the Environment [U.S. Military Acronym]

organophosphate:  A compound with a specific phosphate group which inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Used in chemical warfare and as an insecticide. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

oropharyngeal airway:  A short airway inserted into the oropharynx to prevent the tongue from obstructing the airway. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

OSHA Level A:  Encapsulating chemical resistant protective clothing with self-contained breathing apparatus. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

OSHA Level B:  Nonencapsulating chemical resistant clothing, boots, and gloves with ACBA type devices. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

OSHA Level C:  Nonencapsulating chemical resistant clothing, boots, and gloves with specialized respiratory protection. Respirator either removes particulate matter or gases and vapors from the atmosphere. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

oxime:  A compound used to treat nerve agent poisoning. Oximes attach to the nerve agent that is inhibiting the cholinesterase and break the agent-enzyme bond to restore the normal activity of the enzyme. Oximes are less useful after aging occurs, but with the exception of soman (GD) intoxicated individuals, casualties will be treated before significant aging occurs. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

ozone:  A major air pollutant that is irritating and toxic to the respiratory system. It is a bluish explosive gas or liquid formed when oxygen is exposed to the silent discharge of electricity. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

PACAF:  Pacific Air Forces [U.S. Military Acronym]

PACFLT:  Pacific Fleet [U.S. Military Acronym]

PACOM:  Pacific Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

pallor:  Paleness. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

paralyzing agent:  Any agent that prevents the use of certain muscles or groups of muscles. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

parathion:  An organophosphate insecticide. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

paroxysmal coughing:  Sudden, uncontrolled coughing. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

percutaneous:  Through the skin, such as applying an ointment with medication or injection by needle. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

persistent agent:  A chemical agent that continues to present a hazard for considerable periods after delivery by remaining as a contact hazard and/or by vaporizing very slowly to produce a hazard by inhalation. Generally, may be in a solid or liquid state. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

phenyldichloroarsine (PD):  A vesicant of the L group. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

phosgene (CG):  Carbonyl chloride, a chemical warfare agent used in World War I (was leading cause of death). Causes severe pulmonary irritation and injury. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

phosgene oxime (CX):  Dichloroformoxime. A vesicant, as well as a lung irritant, used as a chemical warfare agent. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

phosphoric acid:  A tribasic acid. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

physical characteristics of chemical agents:  Chemical agents cover the whole spectrum of physical properties. Their physical state may be aerosol, gaseous, liquid, or solid under normal conditions. Their vapor pressure (the force exerted by the vapor when in equilibrium with the liquid or solid at a given temperature) may be high or negligible. Their vapor density varies from slightly lighter than air to considerably heavier than air. Their range of odors varies from none to highly pungent. They may be soluble or insoluble in water, fats, or organic solvents. The physical characteristics may give an indication of the behavior of the agents in the field with regard to vapor hazard, persistency, decontamination methods required, and personal and subsistence protection required. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

physostigmine:  A reversible anticholinesterase permitting an accumulation of acetylcholine (cholinergic). It readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It improves the tone and action of skeletal muscles, increases intestinal peristalsis, acts as a miotic in the eye, and is used in treatment of BZ. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

PIR:  Priority Intelligence Requirement [U.S. Military Acronym]

PMESII-PT :  Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information, Physical Environment, and Time. [U.S. Military Acronym]

positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP):  A method of ventilating a patient where positive pressure is maintained in the lungs at the end of the expiratory cycle, thus maintaining a higher pressure than the pulmonary circulation, which reduces the pooling or shunting of blood in the lungs. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Post Exchange (PX):  Essentially a government run department store on an Army Post.  Sister services have different names for theirs including Navy Exchange (NX), Base Exchange (BX) for the Air Force and Marine Exchange (MX) for a Marine Corps Camp.

POV:  Acronym for Personal Owned Vehicle

pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM Cl):  An oxime used in the treatment chloride of organophosphate insecticides and nerve agent poisoning to block the inhibition of acetycholinesterase. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

prednisolone:  A steroid (glucocorticoid) used in the treatment of choking agents over a course of several days.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Prepper:  Person who practices preparedness.

prostration:  A condition marked by nausea, dizziness and weakness. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

pulmonary edema:  Swelling of the cells of the lungs, associated with an outpouring of fluid from the capillaries into the pulmonary spaces, producing severe shortness of breath. In later stages, produces expectoration of frothy pink serous fluid and cyanosis. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

PX Ranger: Military slang for a fake. Refers to a soldier or service member who buys awards and recognitions at the Post Exchange (PX) Clothing Sales store instead of earning them.

PX:  Army Acronym for Post Exchange

pyrexia:  An abnormal rise in body temperature. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

pyridostigmine bromide (PB):  A chemical compound used medically to prevent the blockage of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by certain nerve agents. It does this by temporarily blocking the site of attachment of nerve agent to AchE prior to exposure to the nerve agent. On cessation of PB, these sites are released, allowing reactivation of the enzyme. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

rales:  An abnormal breathing sound characterized by the sound similar to that produce by squeezing a sponge. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Retreat:  Typically a rural property set up for long term survival away from large population centers.

RGR:   Ranger [U.S. Military Acronym]

riot control agent:  A chemical that produces transient effects that disappear within minutes of removal from exposure and very rarely require medical treatment. Riot control agents are effective in quelling civil disturbances and in some military operations, to preclude unnecessary loss of life. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

RSOI:  Reception, Staging, Onward-movement & Integration [U.S. Military Acronym]

sarin (GB):  A nerve agent of the organophosphorus group which inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

SE:  Supporting effort  [U.S. Military Acronym]

secondary pneumonia:  An infection in the lung produced by the seeding of the lung with bacteria from a remote site of infection, or a pneumonia facilitated by other underlying disease. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA):  An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. OSHA Definition

sepsis:  A condition marked by the presence of bacteria or biological toxins in the bloodstream. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

SHTF:  Acronym for Sh*t Hits The Fan.  Slang for when bad things happen or the end of the world as we know it

SLOCs:  Sea Lines of Communication [U.S. Military Acronym]

smokes:  An [military] obscurant system in which one or more solids are dispersed in a vapor or gas. Smokes are made from special petroleum oils such as SGF2, HC, FM, FS, and WP. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

SOC:   Special Operations Command [U.S. Military Acronym]

SOCPAC:  Special Operations Command, Pacific [U.S. Military Acronym]

sodium bicarbonate:  Commonly called baking soda. Has many uses, including use in irrigating solutions, especially for the eyes. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

sodium carbonate:  An antacid. Also used as a solution for decontaminating the skin to remove irritants. Can be used as a detergent. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

sodium hypochlorite:  Bleach, a source of chlorine, with decontamination and disinfectant properties. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

sodium nitrite:  A hypotensive agent and methemoglobin former, used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning to sequester the cyanide agent. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

sodium thiosulfate:  An antidote for cyanide or as a source of sulfhydryl groups for other actions in the body. If used for cyanide poisoning, it should be preceded with sodium nitrite. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

soman (GD):  A nerve agent member of the organophosphorus group; inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Used as a chemical warfare agent. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

soman nerve agent pyridostigmine bromide pretreatment (SNAPP):  Tablet Set A blister pack containing a pretreatment medication to be used with NAAK. The pack consists of twenty-one 30-mg pyridostigmine bromide tablets. When used in conjunction with the MARK I, this medication may enhances the service member’s survivability when exposed to nerve agents. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

SPOD:  Sea Port Of Debarkation [U.S. Military Acronym]

sulfur mustard:  A sulfur-containing compound of the mustard agent class.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

sulfur trioxide chlorosulfonic acid solution (FS):  An obscurant usually dispensed from  aircraft, forms hydrochloric and sulfuric acid on contact with moisture. Is irritating to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Survivalist:  Another term for prepper.  Essentially the term prepper developed to distinguish the rational, society friendly preparedness minded from the negative, extremist impression that the term ‘survivalist’ developed (deserved or not).  Many preparedness minded individuals still prefer this term.  Both are accurate.

tabun (GA):  A nerve agent member of the organophosphorus group, which inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Is used as a chemical warfare agent. Is the least toxic of the nerve agents but can cause death rapidly. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

tachycardia:  Heart rate greater than 100.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Tacticool:  Hybridization of the words ‘tactical’ and ‘cool.’  Denotes equipment that is neat but can also be used when equipment or its owner are over the top.

TAMD:  Theater Air and Missile Defense [U.S. Military Acronym]

TEOTWAWKI:  Acronym for The End Of The World As We Know It…yes, like the REM song from 1987′s album, Document.  When used by Prepography this denotes a significant change in the world, not and end to the world.  Read more HERE.  Also read this great article on the terms origin from www.prep-blog.com.

TEOTWAYKI:  Acronym coined by Andrew J. Jackson for The End Of The World As You Know It.  This refers to major changes in your life or individual disasters that don’t effect the larger society.  Read more HERE.

thermite (TH):  Incendiaries that are a mixture of powdered iron oxide, powdered aluminum,  and other materials. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

thiosulfate:  A chemical compound used in the treatment of cyanide intoxication. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

titanium tetrachloride (FM):  A petroleum based oil that is converted into smoke for battlefield obscuration. May be irritating to eyes and respiratory tract. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

TOA:  Transfer Of Authority [U.S. Military Acronym]

tranquilizer:  A medication used in the treatment of various psychoneurotic, neurotic, and psychotic disorders. Major tranquilizers are used for psychoses and include phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, and butyrophenones. Minor tranquilizers are used for treatment of neuroses and anxiety states and include certain barbiturates, the benzodiazepines, and other drugs. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

TTP:  tactics, techniques, and procedure  [U.S. Military Acronym]

UJTL:  Universal Joint Tasks List  [U.S. Military Acronym]

ulceration:  Breaking down of a surface (such as the skin or mucous membrane) to form an ulcer. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

urticant:  A skin irritant that causes itching or a raised red area (wheal). Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

USARPA:  United States Army, Pacific [U.S. Military Acronym]

UW:  Unconventional warfare [U.S. Military Acronym]

vacuoles:  A cavity in a cell filled with fluid.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

V-agent:  A nerve agent of the organophosphorus group that inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

vertigo:  Dizziness, where space seems to move around.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

vesicant:  A chemical blister agent, which injures the eyes and the lungs and burns or  blisters the skin. Examples are HD, L, and CX. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

vesicle:  A blister filled with serous fluid.  Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

volatile/volatize- Capable of evaporating. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

water or wetness and may, in some cases, be associated with trauma. Source:  FM 4-02.285/MCR 4-11.1A/NTRP 4-02.22/AFTTP(I) 3-2.69

Without Rule of Law:  Refers to a situation during or after a disaster or collapse when there is a general breakdown in societal norms and legal structures.  You’re on your own during this period.

WROL:  Acronym for Without Rule Of Law.  Pronounced like the word ‘wall’ with an an ‘r’ thrown in as in ‘wrall.’