Endless Sun Solar

The Virus – Today’s Quote

“He took the 2009 pandemic flu virus and selected out strains that were not neutralised by human antibodies. He repeated this several times until he got a real humdinger of a virus,” said one scientist who was present at Professor Kawaoka’s talk.“He left no doubt in my mind that he had achieved it. He used a flu virus that is known to infect humans and then manipulated it in such a way that it would effectively leave the global population defenceless if it ever escaped from his laboratory,” he said.“He’s basically got a known pandemic strain that is now resistant to vaccination. Everything he did before was dangerous but this is even madder. This is the virus,” he added. via Exclusive: Controversial US scientist creates deadly new flu strain for pandemic research – Science – News – The Independent. FacebookPinterestGoogleRedditTwitterTumblrEmailPrintPocketMoreLinkedInLike this:Like...

Nuked Manhattan – Today’s Quote

I continue to be much more concerned when it comes to our security with the prospect of a nuclear weapon going off in Manhattan. President Barack Obama via Obama: I’m Concerned About a Loose Nuke Being Detonated in Manhattan | The Weekly Standard FacebookPinterestGoogleRedditTwitterTumblrEmailPrintPocketMoreLinkedInLike this:Like...

Biological Attack Infographic

Are we ready for a biological attack or biological terrorism?  That’s the question asked by the infographic we’re featuring today.  Biological weapons are just evil!  There’s also an interesting historical rundown of biological attacks through history included.  Wait until you see what the Spanish did to the French while they were fighting each other in Italy in 1495! …and yes, they did include some chemical attacks by mistake but I still love this infographic.   FacebookPinterestGoogleRedditTwitterTumblrEmailPrintPocketMoreLinkedInLike this:Like...

Radiological Hazards

Andrew’s Note:  Today we return to the MULTI-SERVICE DOCTRINE FOR CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR OPERATIONS , FM 3-11, MCWP 3-37.1, NWP 3-11, AFTTP 3-2.42 dated July 2011, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.  Today’s entry is the third entry in this series.  In the first article in this series we discussed  Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Incidents and Hazards, in the second entry we went more in depth on Chemical Hazards then we discussed Biological Hazards.  In today’s finale to this series we look in more depth on Radiological Hazards including Nuclear Hazards. RADIOLOGICAL HAZARDS 1-36. Radiological hazards are an emerging threat to U.S. military operations. These hazards can arise from many sources other than nuclear weapons and can be dispersed in a variety of ways. 1-37. Radiological hazards include any electromagnetic or particulate radiation that is capable of producing ions to cause damage, injury, or destruction.  Radiological material causes physiological damage through the ionizing effects of neutron, gamma, beta, or alpha radiation. These types of radiation are referred to as ionizing radiation. Radiological materials can be found in a number of military and civilian environments (nuclear power plants, hospitals, universities, construction sites). [Andrew’s Note:  …or a truck] Note. For the purpose of this publication, the term radiation denotes ionizing radiation unless otherwise stated. 1-38. Radiological hazards also include toxic industrial radiologicals (radiological material that is manufactured, used, transported, or stored for industrial, medical, or commercial processes). Possible sources of toxic industrial radiologicals that are capable of producing radioactive hazards are civil nuclear production, research, recycling, and storage facilities; nuclear waste containment sites; industrial and medical nuclear sources; nuclear materials and sources in transit; stolen or smuggled nuclear weapons grade material; medical and fossil fuel manufacturing and waste processing plants; and other industrial sources. 1-39. Adversaries could disperse radioactive material in a number of ways, such as arming the warhead of a missile with radioactive material from a nuclear reactor, releasing low-level...

Biological Hazards

Andrew’s Note:  Today we return to the MULTI-SERVICE DOCTRINE FOR CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR OPERATIONS , FM 3-11, MCWP 3-37.1, NWP 3-11, AFTTP 3-2.42 dated July 2011, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.  Today’s entry is the third entry in this series.  In the first article in this series we discussed  Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Incidents and Hazards, in the second entry we went more in depth on Chemical Hazards.  Today’s extract goes into more depth on Biological Hazards and we’ll discuss Radiological Hazards in the next installment. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS 1-30. Biological hazards pose unique challenges because they are relatively easy to produce and difficult to detect; their production facilities have no unique signature. A biological hazard is an organism or substance derived from an organism that poses a threat to human or animal health. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus, or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health. Biological Weapons 1-31. A biological weapon projects, disperses, or disseminates a biological agent, including arthropod vectors.  Militarily significant characteristics for biological aspects of operations in CBRN environments include a normally vulnerable target population, infectious or toxic agents with highly lethal or incapacitating properties, agent availability or adaptability for scaled-up production, agent stability, and agent suitability for aerosol dispersion. Limiting factors include biological properties (particularly rapid decay), environmental factors, and dissemination methods. Biological Agents 1-32. A biological agent is a microorganism that causes disease in people, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. Biological agents are microorganisms that are capable of spreading disease through humans and agriculture. They are categorized as: Pathogens. Pathogens are disease-producing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsia) that directly attack human, plant, or animal tissue and biological processes. Toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances that are produced naturally (bacteria, plants, fungi, snakes, insects, and other living organisms), but may also be produced synthetically. Naturally occurring toxins are nonliving byproducts of...

Chemical Hazards

Andrew’s Note:  Today we return to the MULTI-SERVICE DOCTRINE FOR CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR OPERATIONS , FM 3-11, MCWP 3-37.1, NWP 3-11, AFTTP 3-2.42 dated July 2011, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.  Today’s entry is the second entry in this series.  In the first article in this series we discussed  (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Incidents and Hazards.  Today’s extract goes into more depth on Chemical Hazards and we’ll discuss Biological Hazards in the next installment. CHEMICAL HAZARDS 1-24. Historically, chemical hazards of military concern were limited to a small group of uniquely manufactured chemical weapons referred to as chemical warfare agents.  However, the types of chemical hazards of concern to the military have expanded tremendously over the last decade and now include a large number of toxic industrial chemicals.  Chemical hazards are any chemicals (manufactured, used, transported, or stored) that can cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of those materials. This includes chemical weapons (prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention), chemical agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. Chemical Weapons 1-25. Together or separately, chemical weapons include: A toxic chemical and its precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the  Chemical Weapons Convention. A munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of the above chemicals, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device. Any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices specified above.  Chemical Agents 1-26. A chemical agent is a chemical substance that is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate, mainly through physiological effects. The term excludes riot control agents when used for law enforcement purposes, herbicides, smoke, and flame. Chemical agents are classified according to: Physical state. Agents may exist as a solid, liquid, or vapor. Physiological action. According to their physiological effects, there are...

Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Incidents & Hazards

Andrew’s Note:  For today’s lesson in preparedness we return to our U.S. military manuals, notably the MULTI-SERVICE DOCTRINE FOR CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR OPERATIONS , FM 3-11, MCWP 3-37.1, NWP 3-11, AFTTP 3-2.42 dated July 2011, Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.  Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear is abbreviated as CBRN.  Today we introduce the types of incidents and the introduce the hazards.  Check back later this week as we go into more detail on those hazards. INCIDENTS 1-19. A CBRN incident is any occurrence involving the emergence of CBRN hazards resulting from the use of CBRN weapons or devices, the emergence of secondary hazards arising from counterforce targeting,  or the release of toxic industrial material into the environment. A CBRN incident is characterized on the basis of the intent, opportunity, and capability of the occurrence. There are three basic reasons why a CBRN incident happens, regardless of the type and nature: Intentional. An intentional CBRN incident may include: Criminal acts such as the deliberate dumping or release of hazmat to avoid regulatory requirements. Malicious acts such as the poisoning of one or more individuals. Terrorist acts that involve serious violence to persons or property for a political, religious, or ideological purpose and/or that are a matter of national interest. Accidental. An accidental CBRN incident is an event caused by human error or natural or technological reasons.  Accidental incidents are usually referred to as hazmat accidents and may include: Spills. Releases. Leakages. Natural. A natural CBRN incident is a second- or third-order effect from a natural disaster.  Examples include: Toxic chemical release. Biological waste. 1-20. Intent is the distinguishing difference between the three reasons that CBRN incidents happen. To ensure proper assessment when filtering through the information pertaining to an incident, it is important to know the intent category. Note. A CBRN weapon is a fully engineered assembly that is designed for employment to cause the release...

Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament?

Our nuclear deterrent and those of our closest allies appear to be under attack by our own Executive Branch of Government again…but this time we’re flirting with unilateral nuclear disarmament… First it was accusations in 2011 that President Obama had sold out our British cousins’ nuclear secrets to the Russians…I’m not sure of the truth of these allegations but the British sure seem convinced. Then in early 2012 the President was caught on camera and microphone privately promising Russian President Medvedev thathe would “…have more flexibility” after his “last election” to kill or curtail the planned ballistic missile defense shield over Europe…a defensive shield for the Europeans that Putin, Medvedev and the Russian government strongly oppose. Then in February 2013 we appointed Chuck Hagel as our Secretary of Defense even though he had previously served as a director of Ploughshares Inc. whose mission included encouraging “concrete steps to limit and reduce current [nuclear] arsenals.”  The naiveté of former and future government officials expecting rogue states and non-state actors to buy into their dream of a nuclear weapon free war and their willingness to abandon our nuclear deterrent is simply stupefying. A reader asked me recently about the number of U.S. flag (generals & admirals) that have been forced out of the service lately and I brushed off the insinuation that there was something unusual going on…but in retrospect, several of those flag officers coincidentally served at one level or another in our nuclear deterrent including Strategic Command’s Deputy Commander Vice Admiral Tim Giardina and Major General Michael Carey who was in command of the 20th Air Force / Task Force 214 and it’s 450 intercontinental ballistic missiles. Now it appears that our Commander in Chief is considering unilaterally decreasing the number of weapons in our nuclear deterrent and going beyond the START obligations by destroying additional infrastructure. It’s all well and good to wish for a nuclear...

War Drums – Today’s Quote

We have made it crystal clear – in all possible forums, that Israel will not stand by and watch Iran develop weaponry that will put us, the entire Middle East and eventually the world, under an Iranian umbrella of terror. Israeli Deputy Defense Minister & KM Danny Danon via USA TODAY FacebookPinterestGoogleRedditTwitterTumblrEmailPrintPocketMoreLinkedInLike this:Like...

Reader Question on Mark I Antidote Kits

Prepography reader Deanna wrote in to ask a question about purchasing a Mark I Antidote Kit for protection from nerve agents: Deanna’s question was: Is it possible to purchase a Mark I antidote kit containing both atropine and PAM and if so where would someone find such a thing? After watching the news this morning and hearing about the arrest of 5 men who planned to fly remote control planes over America and dispense sarin and other nerve agents, I think it’s time to look into antidotes. Deanna, thanks for your question.  The prospect of a nerve agent attack is frightening to consider.  As a soldier there’s no situation that concerns me more than the prospect of a chemical attack.  Military grade chemical weapons have traditionally been well secured and have not been available outside of military channels but that has changed since the fall of the Soviet Union and especially since the Arab Spring revolutions (and the more recent Syrian revolt).  Libya in particular had a large stockpile of chemical weapons that were vulnerable to pilferage during the chaos of the revolution.  As horrific as these agents are they remain difficult to acquire (or make), difficult to maintain (improper storage can seriously degrade their affects), difficult to weaponize and difficult to disperse outside of military channels, military munitions and national stockpiles.  While a successful chemical attack would undoubtedly be a tremendous coup for an individual or group wishing to spread terror it would most likely be a very small scale attack and the chances of it affecting you or your loved ones are astronomically small. While the Mark I Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK) and similar kits are available through ‘official’ channels (military, some first responder agencies and select medical response organizations) it is only effective against nerve agents like Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), Soman (GD) and VX. Even if you had ‘official’ access to...

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